Does the Hague Convention cover child abduction between Israel and Japan?

Yes - but only in relation to alleged wrongful removal or wrongful retention of minors between the two countries from 1.4.2014 and thereafter. Japan has only recently become a Hague Country, and the Convention is in effect between Israel and Japan only in relation to alleged child abduction or after this date. Alleged child abduction between Israel and Japan prior to this is not covered by the convention.

Hague Convention