Will the abduction of a child from Israel to one of the former Soviet Union states be covered by the Hague Convention?

Possibly, as many of these states are bound by the Convention, vis a vis abductions from Israel, including Ukraine, whose accession to the Hague Convention came into force in 2007. The Russian Federation finally acceded to the Hague Convention in 2011, Israel accepted its accession, on 21.12.2011, and it came into force for abductions between the two states on 1.3.2012. Accordingly, Hague Convention proceedings can be used if the abduction from Israel to Russia took place on or after 1.3.2012.

Hague Convention